Category Archives: 8. Bone Health

The Alkaline Diet IS the Keto Diet of Choice

The Alkaline Diet IS the Keto Diet of Choice

References: Pure WowDr AxeBook of DanielSaddleback ChurchU of BCJournal of Nutrition,

There has been a recent flurry of articles in the media about the alkaline diet with a few “expert dieticians” poo-pooing it and suggesting you should just follow the Mediterranean diet instead. What’s the confusion for? Let me straighten this out for your so that you get the gist of it.

First of all, the alkaline diet isn’t anything new. The Book of Daniel in the Bible talks about it with the first recorded RCT (Randomized, Placebo-Controlled) experiment in history. That was from 3,000 years ago. Daniel and his fellow observant Jews ate vegetables, (alkaline) and the members of Nebuchadnezzar’s court ate meat. Daniel’s crowd did better. Even got published in a reputable journal that is still read avidly (Bible). And as best I can tell, is still helping people lose weight.
What is the Daniel Diet? Or the Alkaline Diet? Vegetables. Vegetables are filled with potassium and magnesium salts which participate in making your urine pH positive, or greater than seven, which is neutral. Your blood doesn’t change its pH in any measurable fashion, but just that tiny amount enough to switch buffers. You have a complex system of buffers in your blood that helps balance your pH very precisely and exquisitely. You breathe every breath as part of that balance, so it is virtually impossible to measure the changes on a second by second basis in your blood. But you can see it in blood samples of folks eating an alkaline diet. Their red cells are coated with alkaline salts and flow separately from one another. I’ve seen it with my own eyes. And your kidneys just pump out the acid or alkali as fast as they can. In meat/animal based America, everyone’s urinary pH is quite low, around 5.5 We have kidney stones, osteoporosis, vascular disease, cancer all as possible resulting outcomes. Very very few of us eat an alkaline diet. The guy who invented, Robert Young, got way ahead of the curve and ended up in prison for practicing medicine without a license. That doesn’t mean he wasn’t right, just not licensed.

Why is this so valuable? For most of mammalian/hominid history, we were vegans and our kidneys (which control your acid-base flow, and eliminate acid or base) were designed to rid you of alkaline salts, most notably potassium or magnesium. That’s because we ate massive amounts of alkaline foods. All hominids except humans eat mostly raw plants. Gorillas eat 15 pounds of leaves a day. Orangutans, 20 pounds of green leaves (except in fruit season). Their urine is alkaline. Your kidneys can still excrete massive amounts of potassium and sodium. But not acid. With acid, we struggle a little. Humans living a hunter-gatherer lifestyle today (Hazda in Africa) still eat mostly alkaline foods. They know some 250 edible plants in the forest, which they eat. But our brains require more calories to support their energy needs, and animals became more important. About 5 million years ago, we started adding animal to our diet. We like animal. We thrived with more of it.
But animal-based foods have more sulfur salts in them, which are acid. The more animal we eat, the more acid we become. That includes cheese, milk, eggs, fish, and yes, meat. Cheese is the most acid of all because it also has lots of salt added to it. And grains are also acidic, altho a little less so.
All that acid has to flow through you, in your blood. Your blood pH can’t change and doesn’t. But your buffers do. The balance of buffers is read with exquisite sensitivity by your bone cells and every membrane in your body. You start giving up calcium carbonate to balance the buffers, which is the slippery slope of beginning osteoporosis.
What about fat? Fat is neutral. Neither acid or base. Just pH neutral. It has some baggage though. Saturated fat, when from animals, comes with animal protein, which is acidic. Unsaturated fat, from seeds, is high in omega six fats which start inflammation.
And here is the kicker. Remember, gorillas digest green leaves into short chain fatty acids. So do we. A diet rich in green vegetables is a high-fat diet. Then add olive oil and you are even better off. A green salad diet smothered with olive oil is an alkaline, healthy, Daniel diet. Get that? A vegetable-based diet is a keto diet, provided you avoid the roots and the grains. Eating spinach is actually getting fat. Keto redux. You lose weight. You have less cancer. You have less heart disease. You have fewer autoimmune diseases. Your body can heal.
That leaves you with an alkaline diet rich in leafy, green vegetables with lots of safe fats as the diet of choice. The alkaline diet is the purest form of the keto diet. The only question is whether you can be so pure. Ah, there is the rub!

www.What Will Work for me. I’m shifting my animal proportions to more vegetable. Instead of two eggs for breakfast, one egg in spinach. For lunch on the plane, I took an avocado, cut in half at home. Made a great lunch. And I’m fascinated by the Fast Mimicking diet. It’s vegan with nut oils. It’s a keto diet too. In time, we will let Robert Young out of prison and say sorry. (There’s a lot of Robert Young’s work that is pure quackery, but the alkaline part is not.)

 

Pop Quiz

  1. A diet of mostly vegetables, olive oil and a tiny bit of fish is currently called? Answer: The Mediterranean Diet (whatever that is, as all the countries around the Mediterranean have different cuisines, except for their abundant use of olive oil and vegetables)
  2. To be on an alkaline diet, you have to do what? Answer: Eat enough vegetables and little enough meat and cheese to shift your urinary pH to something greater than 7. Very hard to do. Almost no meat.
  3. How does your body balance acid flowing through the system to be excreted by your kidneys? Answer: by a system of buffers, by giving up a tiny bit of Calcium Carbonate from your bones, and by breathing a little more deeply.
  4. The first advocate for the alkaline diet has been elevated to hero status in the annals of medicine. T or F Answer: Are you kidding, he is in prison for reaching way beyond the core truth of his alkaline diet idea.
  5. What is the most recent evidence-based diet, beyond the Mediterranean Diet, that is taking the literature by storm? Answer: The Fast Mimicking Diet that adds fasting to the mix

 

 

 

What’s the Big Deal with Homocysteine?


Reference: Amer Jr Clin NutritionNutrition JournalLIfe Extension,

We’ve known about the risks of homocysteine since the late 60’s when a Harvard researcher by the name of McCulley brought it to the world’s attention with his research. At that time there was a brutal PR war going on about lipids and cholesterol as being the cause of heart disease, which the pharmaceutical industry took up with enthusiasm (because there was so much money to be made). McCulley was essentially booed off the stage with his ideas and homocysteine was swept under the rug, despite continuing research showing that it had an association with headaches, heart attacks, strokes, osteoporosis, macular degeneration, and dementia. Ok, which of those don’t you have? This is the perfect portfolio of what we are getting sick from in this 21st century, and homocysteine is sitting right in the middle of it.
What does homocysteine do? Well, it is really just a shuttle bus moving methyl groups around inside your cell. It backs up when you don’t have enough. That simple. But what do you need methyl groups for? Ah, there’s the rub. (Poor Hamlet, thinking of suicide) Methyl groups are needed to label DNA so that you know which DNA to turn on and off. Having sufficient Methyl-FOLATE, one of the key sources of methyl groups is so powerful that women trying to get pregnant who take METHYL-FOLATE starting one year prior to conception will have as much as a 70% reduction in premature delivery. Wow! Throw in B12 (the other source of methyl groups in nature) with the methyl folate and spina bifida drops 5 fold during pregnancy. I could go for pages describing these effects in the literature, but you get the gist. You need methyl groups to tag and label DNA so that you can turn on the right genes at the right time. Add B6 and methyl glycine (a reservoir chemical to give methyl groups to folate and B12) and you will have pristine, perfect homocysteine levels.
The other thing methyl groups do is to be the first step in making “gunk” water soluble so you can excrete it through your kidneys. Lots of neurotransmitters are “methylated” on their way to excretion, as are all our hormones. Without sufficient methyl groups, we back them up and make more dangerous models.
Where do you get methyl-folate from? The foods are essentially all peas and green vegetables (spinach, asparagus, broccoli), foods we don’t eat anymore. If you eat lots of greens and black-eyed peas (yummy southern soul food cooking) you get lots of good folate.
The real problem is that we don’t measure homocysteine routinely. In fact, many health networks forbid measuring it because it’s not on their list of approved lab tests. Trust me. I know. I’ve gone to battle with one large local health care system only to be told by a nurse reviewer that it doesn’t meet their criteria.
And the irony is that it is ridiculously easy to lower to a normal range. Bredesen in his online training and his book, The End of Alzheimer’s, wants your homocysteine to be 7 or below. You lower it by taking B vitamins.
And that’s what this week’s studies show. B vitamins help slow cognitive decline in aging men. You can correlate that with high homocysteine. The average man in America has a level of 12 but I’ve seen as high as 42 now. For every 1 point above 7, you get a 16% increased risk of Alzheimer’s. Dropping your homocysteine from 12 to 7 halves your risk. Isn’t that just peachy! So simple, so easy, so elegant.
How did we get in this pickle? We evolved eating lots of green leafy vegetables in Africa. We lived to 35. It didn’t harm us then. Bruce Aime’s Triage Theory points out that until a nutrient deficiency makes a biological imperative for evolutionary pressure, it won’t cause trouble. We can skate along the edge of deficiency and not be affected until we fall over that cliff.

WWW.What will work for me. Well, the “cliff” appears to be about age 50 when we seem to get into trouble with sufficient B vitamins. I see very few folks with normal homocysteine. I had a level of 12 when I started and on daily B vitamins, I get down to about 9. I’ve just started with more methyl-folate and I’m waiting to test myself again. I’m bracing for paying the lab fee myself as I know my insurance may not cover it.

Pop Quiz

  1. What does homocysteine do?                                        Answer: It’s a passive amino acid shuttle that carries a methyl group off to attach to other chemicals. It’s simply a marker of sufficient methyl groups for everything else downstream.
  2. Soul food is inherently unhealthy? T or F                    Answer: Timeout. Probably the best way to get methyl folate through food. At least if you are eating greens and black-eyed peas.
  3. What should women wishing to become pregnant do in regard to methyl folate?                        Answer: Take it continuously for at least one year prior to pregnancy initiation in order to reduce their risk of premature delivery as much as 70%
  4. Why doesn’t lack of B vitamins hurt us more sooner? Answer: Bruce Ames triage theory explains that it does hurt us if we put on the right glasses to see it’s effect. It takes years of labeling DNA badly for the effect to show
  5. For every point increase in homocysteine over 7, my risk of dementia goes up how much? Answer: 16% You should know your homocysteine. Always.

Exercise Flushes Out Stem Cells

Reference: Research GateNEJM,

Exercise is wonderful for us. You. Me. All of us. At any age, its magic tonic is more than burning calories. You can measure the wonder of it with examples like the Honolulu Retired Men’s Study that shows men walking 2 miles a day have half for mortality of men walking less than a mile. What on earth is that all about? Something “magical” must be going on.

Stem cells. That’s what is going on. Here is the logic, though I have to admit, not the proof. You can read about the “Stem Cell Theory of Aging” on Wikipedia. Every tissue in your body has a certain lifespan. Different cells have different spans. There has been lots of excitement about cardiac stem cells as a possible means of rejuvenating the heart. Indeed, as best we can tell, each muscle cell in your heartlasts just a month and has to be replaced with a new stem cell that can turn into a heart cell. As we get older, we make fewer stem cells. And as we get older, all of our organs gradually decline, both in volume and function. The liver gets smaller, your muscles get smaller, your brain gets smaller. Yikes. Why don’t they keep their size? Because as we age, the number and amount of stem cells that help them rejuvenate declines. The stem cell theory of aging is just that, that our stem cells poop out over time and we make less and less of them. By age 60 you have about 10% of the circulating stem cells you had at age 18.

Just 6-8 weeks ago we created a whole series on the Fast Mimicking Diet and why it is so powerful in its effects. That’s because it turns on the stem cell engine. In the lab model of diabetes, the FMD has been shown to rejuvenate the pancreas gland with new stem cells. Three cycles of FMD with diabetes and you will have such a boost to your stem cells that your Islets in your pancreas are rejuvenated. The effect of the fast mimicking diet on stem cells appears to be several months.
That’s what appears to be the case with exercise too. Exercise flushes out stem cells from your bone marrow. Or perhaps, exercise flushes out stem cells from other sources, such as fat tissue. I’m not sure we can say more than that as the research isn’t in yet, at least in published form. It is obviously of intense interest to many and surely will be coming out soon.

What’s a person to do? Note that Longo’s formula for the Fast Mimicking Diet allows you to do it less often if you are constantly exercising. The Secret Sauce may be in the togetherness. Do both.
www.What will work for me? I just finished cycle 4 of the FMD. If cycle number one was was a 6 out of 10 in difficulty, cycle 2 was a 5, cycle 3 was a 4, and cycle 5 was the easiest yet. I walked two miles on three of the days of the cycle. I’m down 15 pounds. This coming week, I’m going to draw my blood work and see where I stand. Oh for a simple test of circulating stem cells. I want to live long enough to understand all this interesting stuff.

Pop Quiz

  1. Exercise makes for stem cells. T or F                                     Answer. It doesn’t make them but they show up afterward. Maybe as simple as increasing blood flow just flushing them out.
  2. Fasting for 5 days also turns on stem cells. T or F              Answer: Yup
  3. Your body is carrying around enough calories to last you 5 days. T or F
    Answer: More like 30-120
  4. Organs all decline in function with aging. T or F                  Answer: Yes again
  5. I can measure circulating stem cells easily? T or F               Answer: If you can let me know. I haven’t found the test yet.

 

Vitamin K2 Builds Stronger Bones

Vitamin K2 Builds Stronger Bones

Reference: European Jr of Endocrinology    Published Nov 21, 2016

Vitamin K2 is going to be the story of the decade when it comes to bone health. Why? Well, hip fracture is currently happening at a rate of 17% of elderly Caucasian women and 6% of Caucasian men. African Americans are lucky, breaking their hips much less frequently than Caucasian women. But the incidence of osteoporosis is increasing around the world with rates dramatically rising in countries where doubling and tripling of rates of fracture in the last few decades is not uncommon. And hip fracture is not safe for you! It dramatically increases your mortality in the following 12 months with as many as a third of folks never escaping hospitals or chronic care facilities after their fractures.

Kids need K2 also. You reach maximum bone density around age 20-25 and that predicts what will happen to you over your remaining 60 years. Did you know that the rate of forearm fracture in kids has increased from 262 / 100,000 in 1969 to 399.8 in 1999? And lots of evidence aligns that with the loss of K2 in our diet, and our kids’ diets.

What’s happening? My interpretation is that around the world we are industrializing our food supply, raising our animals on feedlots. In that context, they are losing grass as a food source, and consequently losing their source of Vitamin K which they change into K2. When we humans eat those animals, or their milk products, we don’t get K2.

And that’s why I believe this article this week ought to raise eyebrows. In this study, 148 postmenopausal women who already had osteopenia were given Vitamin K2. It was randomized, placebo controlled in methodology, so should be valid. And the results were simple and significant. K2 prevented the loss of trabecular bone compared to the placebo group. This is the first study I’ve seen in which Uncarboxylated Osteocalcin was measured and was proven to decrease (that’s good) by 65%. You want your osteocalcin to be carboxylated as then it is able to bind calcium into bone. This validates the COMB study in which 77 volunteers increased bone density in just one year by 2-4 times the amount of those taking bisphonates. The COMB study wasn’t randomized. They were volunteers. So, it’s been questioned.

I’ve had a tricky time finding what happens to food when animals are moved from pasture to feedlot. I remember one reference that compared Gouda cheese from America to Dutch gouda and saw a 90% difference. But I can’t provide that reference. There is lots of evidencethat the bacteria that make gouda actually make K2 themselves. This makes gouda a very good source of K2.

Can you get enough K2 in your diet today? Well, no. To get 45 mcg, the minimum you should have a day, you would need to eat 5 Liters of yogurt, 8 eggs, 5 liters of milk and 8 pounds of beef. Not practical. If your meat is grass raised, well, better. We just don’t know how much.

If you look at guidelines for preventing hip fracture and osteoporosis, you don’t see mention of K2 yet. It should be there. If you know it, you are ahead of national guidelines. Now that we can measure uncarboxylated osteocalcin, it will soon become apparent and it will become part of our annual examination.

www.What Will Work for Me. I think K2 is a critical nutrient that every human should be on. We used to get it when we ate grass raised animals. Back when we were hunter gatherers, or primitive farmers, that was easy. It isn’t easy now. But one in six of us breaking a hip should give us pause and passion. Use that passion to buy some gouda cheese, and take K2 for the rest of your life. Think of the investment in you that makes. Ask your doctor to order your uncarboxylated osteocalcin. (Have a sense of humor…..they will look at you like you were a little daft.)

Pop Quiz

‪1. My risk of breaking a hip is?

‪Women 17%, Men 6%, African American Less, Asian in Asia, Less

‪2. If I take K2 I can expect my osteocalcin to become decarboxylated. T or F

False. It becomes carboxylated, and that is what actives it. Simple put, it completes the basket that holds calcium tightly. Without K2, you can’t hold calcium tightly.

‪3. This weeks study has validity because? It was a randomized, placebo controlled study. Nice work

‪4. The COMB study showed that folks decreased their risk of hip fracture? T or F

False. That wasn’t proven. But their bone density increased up to 8% within one year. And in my practice, I’ve seen several folks hit 7% with a year.

‪5. K2 is widely appreciated in national guidelines. T or F

Not yet. Hardly made a peep.

Lead’s Effect May Last LIFETIMES (plural)

Lead’s Effect May Last Lifetimes

Published:  March 21, 2016

Reference: Science News 2016, Translational Psychiatry

The recent controversy about lead in Flint, Michigan has raised the topic of lead poisoning again. Lead removal from America has been one of the public health victories of the last century.   We have gotten it out of our lead pipes, our house paint, our gasoline. It was only 1996 that lead was finally banned from gasoline. But did you know that it persists still in chocolate? In Nigeria, gasoline still has lead in it, and chocolate from Nigeria has up to 460 times the lead in it compared to the cocoa bean. Hence, eating many chocolate products gives children more lead than California says is safe.

Now, we are beginning to understand just how lead does its dirty work. It’s half life in blood is only about 30 days, but in your bone and teeth, where most goes, it hangs around for 25 years. Guilarte, in a study published last year in Translational Psychiatry, showed that baby rats fed tiny amounts of lead lost critical neurons in their brains that are essential for attention and memory, and gained dopamine receptors, in a pattern that fits with schizophrenia. They hypothesize that lead does its damage by replacing zinc. Zinc’s role in the cell is to help switch-proteins fold properly to turn on and turn off DNA.   Lead replaces zinc but doesn’t let the switches happen. Jacqueline Ordemann of Bates College proposed in the Journal Metallomics this year, that lead affects the switches in our brains that affect our sensitivity to schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s and Parkinsons, three brain diseases that have increased dramatically in the last century. Another author, Ruden, published a report in Scientific Reports in January this year showing that lead affects methyl groups on DNA in an atypical fashion. Methyl groups on DNA are how we turn off and on DNA replications. That is the means by which lead poisoning can be passed on to subsequent generations, through abnormal methylation of DNA, and subsequent altered copying of the DNA code.   Ruden compares our DNA to being the hardware of life, but methylation is the software that teaches the cell how to utilize the messages on the DNA. If lead messes that up, it is possible that the effect will last generations. To prove that, one would have to get a population exposed, and not exposed and follow it for generations. That is isn’t going to happen.

It is possible to pull lead out of the body, but not easily from the brain. Lead is not water soluble, so it gets soaked up into fat tissue. That’s what the brain is. And each cell in the brain is shrink wrapped with other cells, called glia, that make an added barrier to removing lead.   So little lead equalizes across that extra barrier that once lead is in you, it’s there to stay, at least in your brain. We may be able to remove it from your body fat, your bone marrow, or other body tissues, but your brain seems to be quite resistant.

Now that we understand some of the mechanisms of lead toxicity, it is incumbent on us to avoid the stuff rather than wait for more convincing research.

WWW.What will work for me? I’m helpless with chocolate. I love the stuff. Knowing what I know about lead, now, gives me resolve to avoid it until I see better evidence that the lead has been cleaned up.   Consumerlabs rates different chocolate sources for lead levels. I have chelated about 100 people in my practice for lead exposure and find that removing it improves thyroid function, white counts, concentration. And looking around my house, I found lead pellets for my air rifle, sitting on a shelf. I haven’t used them for years, but there they were, sitting on my shelf.

 

Pop Quiz

  1. Lead is a normal micronutrient needed for human metabolism. T or F

False. Go back to square one and read the article. It’s a toxin, through and through.

  1. We have banned most sources of lead in America over a hundred years ago. T or F

False. We got it out of gasoline only as of 1996, and many houses still have an undercoat of lead paint and our nations’ water supply comes through many pipes with lead, even though lead pipes were banned years ago.

  1. Lead alters the DNA in our cells, making for abnormal interpretation of the message on the DNA. T or F

Yup

  1. Lead lingers a long time in bones and teeth. T or F

True. Maybe as long as 25 years, or longer in brains.

  1. Chocolate has lead in it. T or F

True. I weep, I mourn, I deny, but it’s true. I’ve heard rumor that Lindt chocolate doesn’t. Nigeria has leaded gasoline, and that may be the source.

Quercetin – A Novel Super-Antioxidant

Quercetin for Cancer, Bones and Allergies

References:  Tsuji J Bone and Min Metab 2013, Mei JCAM 2013Kaur JNCI

What’s Quercetin?  You probably haven’t heard of it.  It if a flavone antioxidant that is present in lots of vegetables.  Onions and apples are always cited and there have been off and on news articles about quercetin helping reduce prostate cancer and breast cancer.  But Quercetin is in lots of other foods that you may not eat as often like capers, cilantro, kale, watercress, cranberries and plums.  In fact, many of the cancer reducing effects of vegetables may be attributable to the beneficial effects of quercetin.

So, just how does that work?  There appear to be a variety of pathways in which quercetin inhibits cancer cells.  Slowing down the rapid cell cycle of cancer cells and inducing them to die when they are meant to (apoptosis) be one of quercitin’s strong points.  It also binds to the estrogen receptors found in breast cancer and also in other solid tumors.   One study showed that it binds just as tightly as tamoxifen.  Because of that effect, it slows the multiplication and spreading of breast cancer cells.   When you combine quercetin and curcumin (sounds like a recipe for curry) there is evidence that you can slow the development of polyps in family’s that make multiple colonic polyps.  So, it slows the cell cycle in cancer and seems to increase the rate at which cancer cells initiate their auto-destruct cycle, something normal cells do on schedule.  That should make quercetin a must for all cancer patients.

What does it do for bone health?   Just about every woman in America should be concerned about keeping her bones healthy, and just about every woman is slightly on the low side.   We have a whole class of drugs that inhibit the natural resorption of bone (alendronate and friends) that have not lived up to promises – too many horrible side effects.   This is where quercetin shines.  It promotes the stimulation of new bone.   Taking drugs like prednisone (sometimes necessary for some illnesses) really thins out bone.   Compared to alendronate, quercetin is better at preventing that.   Just 150 mg a day and you can protect your bones!

There are other effects of quercetin that make it a valuable supplement.   It has been shown to tune up mitochondria.   Does that means better sports performance?  In one study of young swimmers, there was no measured effect.  But another study showed a clear beneficial effect based on measuring oxygen consumption.   And it’s mentioned in many sources for helping congestive heart failure.   It is also a great allergy medication and has been shown to reduce allergic rhinitis in folks with seasonal allergies.

What’s happened to the quercetin content of our foods?  As farmers develop foods to taste sweeter, look prettier, produce bigger yields; they have also reduced the quercetin content.   “Wilder” more original plants have higher levels of all anti-oxidants in them compared to the modern version.  For example, crab apples have more antioxidants and quercetin than modern grocery store apples.

WWW.   What will work for me?   I’m fascinated about the concept of our wilder foods having more cancer reducing effects in them compared to our modern, sweeter and prettier looking versions.   Our modern diet has less quercetin in it because of the genetic engineering of our foods, and our penchant for sugar and packaged convenient foods.   Quercetin may be one of those “pivot – point” foods that provide a bunch of benefits that are loosely ascribed to eating more vegetables.  I’ve tried it now for sneezing and I think I sneezed less this weekend.   I took 500 mg two days in a row.  But ragweed is almost over.  But I’m going to be talking about quercetin to my cancer clients.  Beat me to the punch and get on 500 mg a day.

(Want to read a great review article with lots of References: Check out Life Extension Magazine, Oct 2114)

Pop Quiz

  1. Quercetin is an antioxidant found in most meats and cheeses.  T or F

False.  In many fruits and vegetables (none in meat), but not all.  Apples and onions get mentioned a lot.  Cilantro and capers are superstars.

  1. Cancer cells don’t multiply as fast when exposed to quercetin.  T or F

Right!

  1. Cancer cells get prompted to die on time instead of hanging around when exposed to quercetin.  T or F

Right again.

  1. Quercetin might be as good as many modern bone density drugs for those with osteopenia.  T or F

True, particularly if you have to take oral steroids.

  1. Quercetin may be a great allergy pill substitute.  T or F

Yes.