Category Archives: 24.Basic Physiology

Artificial Sweeteners and the Risk of Dementia

Artificial Sweeteners and the Risk of Dementia

References: StrokeObesityWashington Post,

Whoa, Nellie! Now artificial sweeteners are bad! Help, help, help. We’ve been telling everyone not to eat sugar, and now you turn around and point at sweeteners. What’s the deal? Better, what’s the evidence?
Ok, an observational study from the long-term, Framingham heart study prospectively followed 4,272 older adults for 10 years with follow-up for risk of stroke and dementia. They found 97 strokes and 81 cases of dementia over that time period and compared those outcomes to the frequency of sugar and artificial sweetener use. Compared to controls within those groups, after statistically accounting for the proper variables, they found a 2.97 times increased risk of stroke and 2.87 for increased risk of dementia by drinking one diet soda a day. One measly, little diet soda. Sugar didn’t show any negative effect.
Well, out come the critics in full force (from the soda industry, of course). They claim it was a lousy observational studies without any proof of causation. (True) They attacked because it wasn’t large enough. They griped because the sugar use wasn’t found to be dangerous when every other study shows it has. And the accompanying editorial in the journal pointed out that the risks go away when incident diabetes and vascular risk factors were taken into account.

Ok, ok, so the evidence isn’t perfect. But it is there. Is there a plausible mechanism we can construe that carries a tiny bit of credibility?
Well yes, there is. Here it is. First and foremost, drinking diet soda has been shown to lead to weight gain, not weight loss. The means by which that happens is thought to be by confusing your brain’s appetite sensor into thinking calories are coming because you taste sweet, and then you secrete some insulin, which lowers your sugar, and 4 hours later, you eat more. Presto, fatso.

It may be along this line that we will find an answer. The interplay of human hormones is so complex, it is extremely hard to parse out a single hormone in isolation. The breadth of knowledge is advancing in that direction. Here is one plausible bench research explanation: there is pretty good evidence that being fat makes you insulin resistant, and higher insulin with higher glucose leads to your tummy fat making more amyloid precursor protein (APP). And it’s APP that breaks off in your brain to make agglomerations of beta-amyloid plaque. Ok, so you drink diet soda, make a little extra insulin, get fatter and gain weight, make more beta-amyloid and there you have it. Diet soda makes for more dementia.
WWW.What will work for me. Well, well. Not the strongest of evidence but the gun is smoking never the less. I just drove for 4 hours yesterday and got a big gulp of 32 oz of diet Pepsi at a QuickTrip because I was sleepy. Bummer. I can feel the beta-amyloid crawling up my neurons. I’m weaning myself off sweeteners bit by bit. Sounds like it’s time to increase that effort. Is Stevia just as bad? Haven’t got a clue.


Pop Quiz


  1. If you believe this study, you triple your risk of dementia by drinking artificial sweeteners. T or F                                                           Answer: True unless you nit-pick over 2.87 fold vs 3.0
  2. Women who drink diet sodas stay thin. T or F                         Answer: False, they gain weight.
  3. Belly fat makes amyloid precursor protein, which is the protein that then calves beta-amyloid in your brain, the cardinal sign of Alzheimer’s. T or F                      Answer: Bingo
  4. Is sugar safe to put in your drinks?                                            Answer: No, not at all. In fact, to me, that was the weakest sign of this paper because, on every other front, more sugar is worse for you in ever so many ways. This study sort of absolved it.
  5. Now that you know belly fat makes APP, want to lose weight?                    Answer: oh my goodness, yes.


What’s the Big Deal with Homocysteine?

What’s the Big Deal about Homocysteine?

Reference: Amer Jr Clin NutritionNutrition JournalLIfe Extension,

We’ve known about the risks of homocysteine since the late 60’s when a Harvard researcher by the name of McCulley brought it to the world’s attention with his research. At that time there was a brutal PR war going on about lipids and cholesterol as being the cause of heart disease, which the pharmaceutical industry took up with enthusiasm (because there was so much money to be made). McCulley was essentially booed off the stage with his ideas and homocysteine was swept under the rug, despite continuing research showing that it had an association with headaches, heart attacks, strokes, osteoporosis, macular degeneration, and dementia. Ok, which of those don’t you have? This is the perfect portfolio of what we are getting sick from in this 21st century, and homocysteine is sitting right in the middle of it.
What does homocysteine do? Well, it is really just a shuttle bus moving methyl groups around inside your cell. It backs up when you don’t have enough. That simple. But what do you need methyl groups for? Ah, there’s the rub. (Poor Hamlet, thinking of suicide) Methyl groups are needed to label DNA so that you know which DNA to turn on and off. Having sufficient Methyl-FOLATE, one of the key sources of methyl groups is so powerful that women trying to get pregnant who take METHYL-FOLATE starting one year prior to conception will have as much as a 70% reduction in premature delivery. Wow! Throw in B12 (the other source of methyl groups in nature) with the methyl folate and spina bifida drops 5 fold during pregnancy. I could go for pages describing these effects in the literature, but you get the gist. You need methyl groups to tag and label DNA so that you can turn on the right genes at the right time. Add B6 and methyl glycine (a reservoir chemical to give methyl groups to folate and B12) and you will have pristine, perfect homocysteine levels.
The other thing methyl groups do is to be the first step in making “gunk” water soluble so you can excrete it through your kidneys. Lots of neurotransmitters are “methylated” on their way to excretion, as are all our hormones. Without sufficient methyl groups, we back them up and make more dangerous models.
Where do you get methyl-folate from? The foods are essentially all peas and green vegetables (spinach, asparagus, broccoli), foods we don’t eat anymore. If you eat lots of greens and black-eyed peas (yummy southern soul food cooking) you get lots of good folate.
The real problem is that we don’t measure homocysteine routinely. In fact, many health networks forbid measuring it because it’s not on their list of approved lab tests. Trust me. I know. I’ve gone to battle with one large local health care system only to be told by a nurse reviewer that it doesn’t meet their criteria.
And the irony is that it is ridiculously easy to lower to a normal range. Bredesen in his online training and his book, The End of Alzheimer’s, wants your homocysteine to be 7 or below. You lower it by taking B vitamins.
And that’s what this week’s studies show. B vitamins help slow cognitive decline in aging men. You can correlate that with high homocysteine. The average man in America has a level of 12 but I’ve seen as high as 42 now. For every 1 point above 7, you get a 16% increased risk of Alzheimer’s. Dropping your homocysteine from 12 to 7 halves your risk. Isn’t that just peachy! So simple, so easy, so elegant.
How did we get in this pickle? We evolved eating lots of green leafy vegetables in Africa. We lived to 35. It didn’t harm us then. Bruce Aime’s Triage Theory points out that until a nutrient deficiency makes a biological imperative for evolutionary pressure, it won’t cause trouble. We can skate along the edge of deficiency and not be affected until we fall over that cliff.

WWW.What will work for me. Well, the “cliff” appears to be about age 50 when we seem to get into trouble with sufficient B vitamins. I see very few folks with normal homocysteine. I had a level of 12 when I started and on daily B vitamins, I get down to about 9. I’ve just started with more methyl-folate and I’m waiting to test myself again. I’m bracing for paying the lab fee myself as I know my insurance may not cover it.

Pop Quiz


  1. What does homocysteine do?                                        Answer: It’s a passive amino acid shuttle that carries a methyl group off to attach to other chemicals. It’s simply a marker of sufficient methyl groups for everything else downstream.
  2. Soul food is inherently unhealthy? T or F                    Answer: Timeout. Probably the best way to get methyl folate through food. At least if you are eating greens and black-eyed peas.
  3. What should women wishing to become pregnant do in regard to methyl folate?                        Answer: Take it continuously for at least one year prior to pregnancy initiation in order to reduce their risk of premature delivery as much as 70%
  4. Why doesn’t lack of B vitamins hurt us more sooner? Answer: Bruce Ames triage theory explains that it does hurt us if we put on the right glasses to see it’s effect. It takes years of labeling DNA badly for the effect to show
  5. For every point increase in homocysteine over 7, my risk of dementia goes up how much? Answer: 16% You should know your homocysteine. Always.


The One Supplement That Time Magazine Says You Should Take

The One Supplement Time Magazine Says you Should Take

References: Time MagazineNatureOzone TherapyWikipediaScienceScience DailyElysium Health,

If you make the cover of Time Magazine, you must have caught someone’s eye. To see Time Magazine grapple with the intricacies of NAD and NADH surprised me, so I had to follow up. Let’s see if I can get you to understand this.
NAD is a critical cofactor in many functions in your body, most particularly the production of energy. You can get it from the Vitamin called NIACIN, that you have heard about, or you can make it internally by combining tryptophan and aspartic acid (for you chemistry geeks), but you gotta have it. And as with everything else, as we get older, we make much, much less of it.

In one experiment in aging mice published last year in showed that after treatment two-year-old mice looked as healthy as 2 months old mice. In mouse terms, that’s an 80-year-old human looking as good as a 10-year-old. Pretty dramatic.
Call all this be extended to humans? Well, yes. That’s what this article was about. A human experiment taking NAD and another cofactor called pterostilbene (commonly known as blueberries) resulted in sustained elevation of the NAD/NADH ratio. It’s that ratio that falls apart as we age, leading to fatigue, lack of initiative, brain fog etc. Old age in a nutshell. Placebo folks didn’t get any better. Single dose showed improvement. Double dose showed better improvement.

Now, are there other sources of changing that improvement? You bet. This is where it gets really kinky. Almost all medical conditions can be simplified down to the inability to mount enough of an energetic response to fix the problem, so the disease-causing state continues. If more energy could be generated, our bodies had the tools to fix themselves. Hence, as we age we make less energy and get more nasty diseases. (This is the theory espoused by the ozone crowd.) So guess what happens when you give ozone given to you IV? (Can’t have it in your lungs as pulmonary ozone is a deadly toxin on your delicate lungs.) But you can have it in blood and then given back to you. Well, the same thing as above. You change the balance of NAD/NADH dramatically in the direction of making more energy, restoring yourself to a much more youthful state. Ozone and its effect on the NAD/NADH ratio has been talked about for decades now. It’s nice to see Time Magazine catching up. But ozone has a real, measurable, energy enhancing effect when given by IV.
www.What Will Work for me. Well, I can take Niacin and eat blueberries all by myself. Or I can take a pill that made Time Magazine from Elysium Health called Basis. (It has NAD+ and pterostilbene in it.) I suspect there will be a medical test coming soon that can measure your NAD/NADH ratio. In a research lab, you want it to be 700/1. If you are over 50, it’s likely 30-60% less. I suspect you may feel that you are 30-60% off your game. Look up Elysium Health and give it a try. As for me, I just finished a bowl of blueberries.

Pop Quiz

  1. The ideal ratio of NAD to NADH should be?                                        Answer: 700/1
  2. Pterostilbene is a potent antioxidant derived from?                         Answer: Blueberries
  3. As we age, our ability to make NAD from NADH does what?          Answer: Plummets
  4. If you read the Science experiment, the people getting the “BASIS” showed what in their blood?                                                                                                        Answer: More NAD
  5. Has this strategy been proven to make folks live longer?                Answer: Nope. Not yet. But it is really interesting, and it’s safe, as best we know. So, not a bad experiment if you have $ 50 bucks floating around.


Exercise Flushes Out Stem Cells

Exercise Flushes Out Stem Cells

Reference: Research GateNEJM,

Exercise is wonderful for us. You. Me. All of us. At any age, its magic tonic is more than burning calories. You can measure the wonder of it with examples like the Honolulu Retired Men’s Study that shows men walking 2 miles a day have half for mortality of men walking less than a mile. What on earth is that all about? Something “magical” must be going on.

Stem cells. That’s what is going on. Here is the logic, though I have to admit, not the proof. You can read about the “Stem Cell Theory of Aging” on Wikipedia. Every tissue in your body has a certain lifespan. Different cells have different spans. There has been lots of excitement about cardiac stem cells as a possible means of rejuvenating the heart. Indeed, as best we can tell, each muscle cell in your heartlasts just a month and has to be replaced with a new stem cell that can turn into a heart cell. As we get older, we make fewer stem cells. And as we get older, all of our organs gradually decline, both in volume and function. The liver gets smaller, your muscles get smaller, your brain gets smaller. Yikes. Why don’t they keep their size? Because as we age, the number and amount of stem cells that help them rejuvenate declines. The stem cell theory of aging is just that, that our stem cells poop out over time and we make less and less of them. By age 60 you have about 10% of the circulating stem cells you had at age 18.

Just 6-8 weeks ago we created a whole series on the Fast Mimicking Diet and why it is so powerful in its effects. That’s because it turns on the stem cell engine. In the lab model of diabetes, the FMD has been shown to rejuvenate the pancreas gland with new stem cells. Three cycles of FMD with diabetes and you will have such a boost to your stem cells that your Islets in your pancreas are rejuvenated. The effect of the fast mimicking diet on stem cells appears to be several months.
That’s what appears to be the case with exercise too. Exercise flushes out stem cells from your bone marrow. Or perhaps, exercise flushes out stem cells from other sources, such as fat tissue. I’m not sure we can say more than that as the research isn’t in yet, at least in published form. It is obviously of intense interest to many and surely will be coming out soon.

What’s a person to do? Note that Longo’s formula for the Fast Mimicking Diet allows you to do it less often if you are constantly exercising. The Secret Sauce may be in the togetherness. Do both.
www.What will work for me? I just finished cycle 4 of the FMD. If cycle number one was was a 6 out of 10 in difficulty, cycle 2 was a 5, cycle 3 was a 4, and cycle 5 was the easiest yet. I walked two miles on three of the days of the cycle. I’m down 15 pounds. This coming week, I’m going to draw my blood work and see where I stand. Oh for a simple test of circulating stem cells. I want to live long enough to understand all this interesting stuff.


Pop Quiz


  1. Exercise makes for stem cells. T or F                                     Answer. It doesn’t make them but they show up afterward. Maybe as simple as increasing blood flow just flushing them out.
  2. Fasting for 5 days also turns on stem cells. T or F              Answer: Yup
  3. Your body is carrying around enough calories to last you 5 days. T or F
    Answer: More like 30-120
  4. Organs all decline in function with aging. T or F                  Answer: Yes again
  5. I can measure circulating stem cells easily? T or F               Answer: If you can let me know. I haven’t found the test yet.



Neural Exosomes: Diagnosing Alzheimer’s Early

Neural Exosomes

References: Alzheimer’s DementScience Direct,

Neural Exosomes? Sound like Greek to you? Ever heard of them? You should have. Here’s the scoop. First, they aren’t rare. You have about some 1.2 billion of them per ml of blood. They are tiny little spheres of membrane that have budded off of neural cells. Much like the tiny vesicles that bud off a nerve cell to transmit nerve impulses between cells, exosomes are 2-3 times the size of those packages, and designed to travel further to other cells. Instead of neurotransmitters, they carry RNA instructions. Many come from the brain, but many come from other organs.

What makes them unique is the surface markers on them and the RNA in them, including messenger RNA, mircoRNAs, DNA and signaling proteins. They are not fully functional cells, they are tiny little spheres of membrane, lined/filled with all these unique markers. The range of function that is being proposed for them is that of signaling between cells, moving cellular components, like amyloid precursor protein or messenger RNA. What is known is that you can measure them in quantity and specificity way before you come down with disease. In particular, they show up as much as 10 years before your develop Alzheimer’s. Did you get that? They give you the markers of advance warning.
Now, it’s not just that advance warning they give you. Each exosome has within it a unique pattern of micro RNA and messenger RNA. What are those doing? Did you know that your own chromosomes are actually only 2% coded for your unique genes? That’s it. But did you know that the other 98% isn’t junk? It’s your instruction manual. Messenger RNA is how you send out genetic code about what to do when. This is how your body responds to development as you move from a single egg into a fantastically complicated human. Some of that code is good for you and builds you up. Some of it is like napalm, and attacks the enemy, tearing you down. And,… is the critical point. The messenger RNA is also how you send out instructions on how to respond to disease/threat/illness. All disease. Each condition merits different sets of instructions. That means Alzheimer’s will have different proteins in its exosomes than Lyme disease, or pancreatitis, or rheumatoid arthritis, or pneumonia. Another example function, we believe that exosomes are how we clear Amyloid Precursor Protein, APP. Lousy clearance results in accumulation of amyloid in your brain. We call that Alzheimer’s If we can learn how to interpret our Alzheimer’s exosome and how they are different, we can learn how to anticipate and react proactively. Learning how to read exosomes gives us the code to our “instruction manual”.
Now, what is coming is the next miracle. There are companies developing the software to interpret these tests who are just months away from commercial release. With that, we will be able to tell you just what you need to do next. Remember Star Trek’ Dr McCoy and the Magic Wand that would diagnose everything? Yup. That’s it. We are almost there. Maybe not a wand, but an exosome reader. It’s complicated. It is the epitome of “Big Data”.

A point of trivia: do you know how much DNA is in you? Here goes. One cell’s human DNA would stretch out about 2 meters. And considering that we have some 20 trillion cells, one human’s DNA would stretch from the sun, way beyond Jupiter. That’s a lot of DNA. Now, consider that over 99% of the DNA we carry around is actually in our gut in the bacteria of our colonic biome, now we are talking a lot of code that could be in exosomes.
WWW.What will work for me. I’ve finished Bredesen’s Certification Course this week and am just blown away by the possibilities of what we can do to reverse this wicked evil disease. It’s thrilling. And its sad. My 92 year mother with Alzheimer’s is too late to be helped. It makes this Mother’s Day bittersweet. I hope you are able to celebrate with your Mother. In a few months, we will be able to keep her safe from Alzheimer’s. In the meantime, I’m focusing on getting a good night’s sleep. You clear Amyloid much more effectively with good sleep. Maybe that’s why you feel so refreshed when you wake up.

Pop Quiz


  1. What is an neural exosome? It’s a little bud off a nerve cell, a bit bigger than the bud that sends neurotransmitters between nerve cells, that travels further between cells, sending messages.
  2. How many neural exosomes do you have? Answer: LOTS. 1.2 billion per milliliter of blood.
  3. What do they carry inside them? Answer: Signaling instructions in the form of RNA, microRNA, proteins.
  4. Is there a different set of exosomes for Parkinson’s versus Alzheimer’s? Answer: YES! A different set for every disease
  5. How much sooner a warning will I get if my exosomes say “Alzheimer’s Condition: Red Alert”? Answer: About 10 years, as best we know now. Much more to come, of course.


Eat Spinach, It’s High Fat Food

Eat Spinach, it’s High Fat Food

References: WikipediaBMJHarvard HealthJ Clin GastroScience Based Medicine,

I’ve learned that sugar and white flour is bad for my brain, my weight and just about everything else. Everyone around me is on a Keto Kick trying to lose weight with the Ketogenic diet. And it doesn’t work for me. How can I eat a high fat diet? And what I’m most worried about is my brain. How can I prevent Alzheimer’s?
Well, step one and two of Bredesen’s RECODE program are to eat a low carb high fat diet, and to not eat each night for 12 hours. This is how you teach your brain to run on ketones.

The conundrum comes when I try to eat low carb by having steak, bacon, eggs and cheese. And then my weight doesn’t budge. What gives? Turns out that animal protein and fat are not so good for us. Animal protein turns on the mTOR gene, that makes me age faster. I don’t want to do that. In the last few years, two studies about eating more animal and heart disease have bothered me. A BMJ article from Sweden shows that men who eat animal protein have a 5% increase for heart disease for every 5 gram increase in animal protein. And the Harvard Professional Men’s Study showed that men in the top quartile of meat consumption had 70% more heart disease.

What’s a person to do? Well, eat more vegetables. Guess what happens to vegetables and resistant starches? Where are they digested? Turns out not in your stomach, and not in your small bowel but in your colon by the biome of bacteria in your colon. Resistant starches are carb rich foods prepared in a certain way or eaten before fully ripe. Green bananas, for example are quite resistant and get digested in your colon into short chain fatty acids. Ditto for Peruvian potatoes, cooked and then cooled. The amylose molecule changes its shape with heating, and then again with cooling, making it indigestible in your upper gut which delivers it to your colon, where the bacteria break it down to short chain fatty acids. Propionate and butyrate are amazing super foods. They are the short chain fatty acids that nourish you and your whole body. They are fats. Eating spinach makes for fat. Green beans, ditto. Asparagus, broccoli, cabbage– if it’s above ground, its probably going to go the same route.

Enter the Kitavans. A small island off New Guinea where 80% of folks smoke, but they eat no sugar or western food, and have 70% of their diet from resistant starch and coconut. They are all slender, have no vascular disease or AD. One could properly conclude that their diet is high fat: a combination of coconut and resistant starches from yams and taro.
Hence, a vegetable based diet can be ketogenic. Get it? Eating salads with lots of olive oil, is more fat based than you thought. Do you see the path forward?
www.What will work for me. I went to a Mexican restaurant last night. We had guacamole for hors-d’oerves and I had a shrimp and avacodo/lettuce salad. I felt quite smug navigating a typically high carb, high animal fat environment and escaping feeling good about my meal. This morning, a spinach omelet. I’ve finished 3 cycles of the Fast Mimicking Diet and I’m done another 4 pounds.


Pop Quiz

  1. Eating leafy green vegetables turns your fibrous foods into?                      Answer: Fat in so many words, short chain fatty acids
  2. What other foods turn into beneficial fats?                                                     Answer: Resistant starches like cold potatoes and cold rice (emphatically NOT fresh not rice or potatoes), green banana, kasava,
  3. What small group of people smoke like chimneys but have no heart disease and live into their nineties?                                                                                             Answer: The Kitavans
  4. Bredesen calls for a diet composed of?                                                        Answer: Healthy green vegetables, olive oils and very low carbs, low animal fats and low animal protein
  5. What are we trying to teach your brain to do with this strategy?                 Answer: stop running on glucose and learn to use ketones as fuel (small fatty acid molecules) obtained from eating coconut oil, olive oil, and ironically, green vegetables.


Fast Mimicking Diet 5: Cancer and the Magic Shield

Fast Mimicking Diet 5: Cancer and the Magic Shield

References: CellBMC CancerCancer CellPLOS Biology,

Last week we learned about reversing diabetes. This might be the Holy Grail of modern medicine. The prevention and treatment of cancer might be just as important. Cancer frequency increases with age, essentially equating aging with more disease. How to prevent it?
The first key concept is to understand how cancer comes about. It takes a key mutation, or probably several mutations or changes in the DNA sequence of a cell, for the cancer cell to develop “oncogenes”, cancer favoring genes. Cancer cells stop obeying orders, which in fact makes them weaker and more vulnerable to damage from external toxins. This is why Vitamin C, ozone, and many chemotherapy drugs have a deterring effect. It’s as though cancer cells are race cars with the accelerator stuck to the floor: they can’t slow down.

Longo recognized that key characteristic of cancer cells, and the essential response of healthy yeast/worms/mice to the fast mimicking diet. When you deprive healthy cells of key nutrients for a fixed period of time, they recognize that they are in trouble. The “get the memo” and respond by hunkering down. Longo called it the “magic shield”. Cancer cells can’t do that. The cancer cell tries to keep growing, even with no nutrients around.

In an experiment with mice, one of Longo’s graduate students gave mice chemotherapy and compared a group with normal daily diet versus some fed no food for two days prior to the chemo. The differences were striking. The fasting mice were dandy, the normally fed mice all got sick. In a week or two, 65% of the regular diet mice were dead. The same dramatic effects were found when micewith lung cancer were given chemo with or without fast mimicking: the fasting mice had 60-70% remission rates compared to much lower in the normally fed mice.
It appears there are two key dynamics going on with this cancer effect: the first is that the fasting weakens the cancer cells, making them more vulnerable. The second is that it renews and “revs” up the immune system, making it more aggressive against the cancer cells..

And the effects go beyond just making the immune system stronger. The use of potent steroids is a part of many chemo regimens with mixed blessings as the resulting elevation of glucose adds to toxicity. The FMD reduces glucosedramatically, suggesting that the use of steroids should be reconsidered.

Where are we with randomized clinical trials in cancer? Considering that there are several hundred types of cancer scattered all over, it takes a while to conduct studies on any one cancer with this strategy, so there are very few studies completed. The three or four that Longo refers to in his book make the strong argument for safety of the strategy, reduction of side effects, increased ability to complete chemo regimens. With that in hand, Longo suggest the following guidelines in his book. 1. If the oncologist agrees, the patient may fast or do the FMD for three days before chemo and 1-2 days after standard chemo drugs. 2. If fasting, make sure you don’t resume regular eating immediately following the chemo as the rebounding growth of liver cells at a time of lingering blood levels of chemo lead to liver toxicity. Weather it out with fasting at least 24 if not 48 hours after the chemo. And start slowly on vegan food, with lots of olive oil: rice, bread, pasta, vegetables and soups. Finally, try to return to normal body weight between cycles. If on any diabetes drug, please, please consult a knowledgeable physician first.

WWW. What will work for me. And just what do you want to do if you have high risk for cancer? Start by reading Longo’s book. If I had the BRCA gene, I would be doing this diet for the rest of my life. I do have diabetes genes in my genetic code, so I probably will be doing this the rest of my life, just like all of us should be. Your blood tests will tell you how often you should be doing it. In the meantime, I’ve now seen three people with dramatic success in just a few months with their diabetes getting better. Want to join that list?

Pop Quiz


  1. The Fast Mimicking Diet is called what by Longo?                                                Answer: The Magic Shield
  2. Cancer cells disobey orders and can’t do what?                                                   Answer: Take their foot off the accelerator and stop growing when there are no nutrients around.
  3. What happens to your immune system against cancer after you FMD?            Answer: Rev Rev.
  4. What’s the likelihood of your doing better if you do FMD while getting chemo? Answer: Fewer side effects and likelihood to get more chemo in you.
  5. Do we want you to lose weight via the FMD when you have cancer?                 Answer: NO! In between cycles we want you to gain it back.


Fast Mimicking Diet 4: Reversing Diabetes

Fast Mimicking Diet 4, Reversing Diabetes

References: Whitehall StudyCirculationAgingDiabetes CareCell,

This is a big deal. If you read no email this year but this one, you will be well served. The reversal of diabetes is so important, it is a game changer for all of medicine. Why? Two reasons.

The first is that it is so destructive, effecitively being the cornerstone for all our diseases of modern society. We have defined diabetes by committee and decided that it really wasn’t a disease until you got to a blood level of 124 or so, measured twice, or a Hemoglobin A1c of 6.2 or 6.4 (Remember: the A1c is the percent of hemoglobin molecules with a glucose stuck on them. Red cells live 100 days, about, which makes the A1c a nice surrogate marker for your average glucose over the last 100 days.. But that is looking at a disease you might think about treating. What would happen if you decided to consider what blood sugar results in optimal function? I would refer you to the Whitehall Study from England, It showed that for every point of glucose above 86, you have a 5% increased risk of heart disease. And there is wide acknowledgement now that we need to lower blood sugar, which modern medicine does by treating with drugs. That means an optimal blood sugar should be 86. Bredesen shows abundant evidence that a HgbA1c of 5.5 is what you want if you are anxious about Alzheimer’s.

The second is that everyone has it. There are all sorts of papers saying how many millions of people have it, but that is the DISEASE. If you want optimal function, the picture is much gloomier. The simplest explanation of how your body progresses to diabetes is as follows: your fat cells become insulin resistant in relationship to their size. As you get fatter, your fat cells get bigger. You don’t make ore. And your insulin receptors get further apart, So you become insulin resistant. You raise your insulin to keep that blood sugar in control, which you can only so for so long. After a while, you run out of the ability to keep raising your insulin level. It’s as though you were only given so much insulin in a lifetime. As long as you were only burning a tiny amount a day, you can live a very long time. But it has become pretty apparant that once we get overweight, we are burning up our insulin supply faster than we can maintain for a lifetime of 100 years. And that is what we see today in modern medicine. As we age, being a bit plump gradually turns into our blood sugar slowing rising, and your being put on one pill after another until you get to age 55 or so, and then you flunk out and get put on insulin. Your islets in your pancreas look shaggy with fewer healthier insulin producing cells. And then your kidneys fail and you get on dialysis, and then you flunk and get Alzheimer’s. Till now, the key to reversing diabetes has all been about losing weight, making fat cells smaller and getting the residual ability you have to make insulin in line with your reserve of insulin producing capacity. Imagine having an insulin level of 35 when you weight 190, but a level of 2 when you weight 132. That’s what we see clinically happening.

Here is where the Fast Mimicking Diet (FMD) comes in. What would you think if I told you that the FMD turns on the genes that literally wipe out old, dead, decaying tissue and starts rejuvenation of new insulin producing cells? Yes, produces new insulin cells. We have never seen anything quite like this before. This is like the holy grail of medicine, and it’s right there in front of our faces. The FMD turns on genes that support resiliency, getting rid of old garbage that’s in the way and turning on the growth of new stem cells. This is dieting for your genes sake. And all we are asking of you is 5 days a month until you have got yourself fixed.

WWW.What will work for me. I’ve been getting older and I have a family history of diabetes. To my alarm, this year my A1c ticked up from it’s usual 5.2-5.4. I’ve already done one cycle. I’m starting cycle number two. I just came back from a trip to see old friends I grew up with in India. I’m going to send them copies of Longo’s book. My advice to you is to not trust me, or your own doctor on this topic. Trust your own lab results. Watch your own response. The data is there. This diet will eventually become the “human diet”. We will all be on a variation of it. The good news, if you don’t have any risk factors, is that you only need to do it twice to three times a year, provided you exercise properly.

Pop Quiz


  1. Diabetes starts at a Hemoglobin A1c of 6.2. T or F                                         Answer: true, if you call it as the disease and use current medicine’s standards. Optimal is a whole different story. If you have worries about heart disease, Alzheimer’s. autoimmune disease.. or just want to age gracefully into your 90s, you want an optimal A1c: below 5.5
  2. You can lower your A1c by losing weight. How does that work?                    Answer: your fat cells get smaller and the residual insulin you have left become in line with the amount you need to control those fat cells.
  3. If I’m getting a little older and a little heftier, what is happening to my insulin producing cells in the islets in my pancreas?                                                                                 Answer: They are getting fewer and making less insulin.
  4. How many days do I have to do this diet thing?                                                Answer: 5. Four, as best we know, isn’t sufficient.
  5. What is an optimal blood sugar?                                                                         Answer: Your family doctor will tell you under 100 or so but won’t call you diabetic until you are 126, or if they are just checking your urine, you will be normal when you have a sugar below 180 because your kidneys can reabsorb anything below 180. (I kid you not, I talked to a person this week whose doctor was still checking urine for diabetes.)


Fast Mimicking Diet 2: The Human Method Simplified

Fast Mimicking Diet 2 The Human Method

References: Longo: The Longevity Diet, ScienceGut,

Last week we heard about yeast being used to explore what genes are needed to make the right environment for longevity. Valter Longo’s hypotheses was that those same genes exist in mammals, humans included. If he could make the same changes in longevity by diet and its effect on genes in mice that he made in yeast, he would have a huge scientific win. He started looking at mice and their genetic code. Mice live about two years and start getting cancer around a year and a half. That makes a useful model.
What did he find? The exact same thing. Two key ideas. Extra sugar activate the PKA gene. That causes trouble. Mice with lower PKA activity, live longer. That simple. And extra protein activates the growth hormone receptor and TOR-6SK and increases the level of insulin and insulin like growth factor. Certain amino acids appear to be more potent at activating the TOR-6SK complex, like leucine. which then accelerates aging. That’s it. The foundation of aging down to two simple key processes. Too much sugar, and too much protein. That duo is the foundation of what Longo called his “basic juvenology research”, one of his Five Pillars of Proof.
The story is all about the nuance of glucose and protein.

Our body runs on glucose. It is our preferred food for our brain, if present. The story is all about how it is delivered and what happens to our bodies if we get too much, too fast. When you get low glycemic carbs from vegetables, your blood sugar rises very slowly and you hardly get an insulin response. (For example, it takes 19 cups of asparagus to make 50 grams of glucose). If you have a diet of broccoli, spinach and green beans, you hardly get any insulin spike at all. A substantial portion of those vegetables make it to your colon where the biome in your colon changes those coarse fiber rich foods to short chain fatty acids, just like in gorillas (See this column from 2 weeks ago). Just like with gorillas, a high fiber diet actually results in substantial increase in fatty acids, or fat. Adhering to a Mediterranean Diet appears to make this possible, all due to the activity of the biome in your gut.
A high protein diet changes your gut biome and increases many markers of cardiovascular disease,TMAO (trimethylamine oxide). So we have seen these changes from other lines of research as well.

We are even beginning to understand the incredible complexity of our gut biome. Our colon is there to take high fiber foods and digest them for us, releasing short chain fatty acids, turning low glycemic vegetables into short chain fatty acids. Bacteroidetes are more abundant in the stool samples of those eating a mostly plant based diet, while Firmicutes were more abundant in those who eat a more animal products diet. From those major families, the specific bacteria Prevotella and Lachnospira were more common in vegetarians and vegans while Streptococcus is more common among the omnivores with higher meat intake.

Can we take this to humans with specific guidelines? Well yes. This is what Longo has come up with. Protein should be about 0.31-0.36 grams per pound per day, of which about 40 grams for women weighing 130 and 60 grams for men weighing 200. Once you hit age 65, you likely need a little more protein, but not that much. Just a little.

Your diet should be rich in healthy fats like olive oil, fish and coconut oil, walnuts and almonds. These fats essentially do the same process of helping you get more calories from fat, like the gorilla. Trans fats and saturated fats are to be avoided. And there should be plenty of Healthy Carbs – the type that make it to your colon and turn into fat. They generally have a glycemic index under 20, or 45 max which would include beans (if you aren’t lectin sensitive). The carbs that get digested in your small bowel and make sugar spikes look like ground flours of any kind, sugar in particular, high fructose corn syrup in double particular, fruit juices or too much modern fruit (modern apples are nowhere near the original Himalayan apple – ditto for pears, bananas, on and on that we have altered in the last 100 years to be much richer in sugar). Most grains are just too rich in carbs to be too good for you, unless you have changed them to be resistant, usually by cooking and then cooling. Same with potatoes. The original potato from Peru was a fine food with a GI of 40. Now it’s a glycemic index of 80-95, unless you boil it and cool it making it resistant. (Is this enough to confuse you a little?)
Finally, cut your meals down to 2 and a snack. Try to fit all your food into 11-12 hours of eating and not for 3 hours before bedtime. Breakfast is NOT the meal to skip as there is plenty of evidence that that habit correlates with many illnesses.

Ok? Next week, we will discuss how to FAST and do it right so that you kick start your genes into being supercharged. It’s cool, and it works.
WWW. What will work for me. This is evidence based and I get it. I’m so fascinated that I drew my own lab tests and started doing it full bore, as much as can be done living in a modern 8-5 work world. It’s the fasting part that has my attention. I’ve completed my first 5 day session and intend to do it again. It wasn’t so hard. More next week.

Pop Quiz


  1. Animal protein appears to shorten longevity? T or F                           Answer: True
  2. We need animal protein to support our healthy brain? T or F          Answer: Again true. Conundrum? Yup. We get B12 only from animal sources. But nature doesn’t care much about you once you have made your babies and passed on your genes.
  3. A high carb diet is bad for you. T or F                                                    Answer: All in the details. High in low glycemic green vegetables, it’s very good for you and is actually a high fat diet.
  4. The über enemy of nutrition is?                                                           Answer: Sugar, fructose in particular when it gets above the 6% found in fruit.
  5. How much protein can I have a day?                                                   Answer: 0.31-0.16 grams per pound when under 65 A little more after. But not much.


Lectin Lesson 5: Resistant Starch is a High Fat Diet – Ask the Gorillas!

References: Steven Gundry’s Plant Paradox, Journal NutritionJ. Internal MedNature,

Once upon a time our diet was very similar to gorillas. Say some 10 million years ago, and prior. We ate leaves, in Africa. Only 8 million years ago did we diverge from chimpanzees and only 2 million years ago did our brains start getting bigger in response to eating meat. We had learned to run long distance, which made us the most successful hunter in Africa. But our guts were still used to eating leaves, and designed to do so.

What happens on eating leaves? Leaves are very dense, high fiber foods. Gorillas eat about 16 pounds a day, in today’s gorilla. The gorilla can’t digest those leaves, but their gut biome can. The bacteria in their gut break down the leaves and convert the cell walls of those plants into tiny, short chain fatty acids. Net effect, the gorilla’s diet becomes 70% fat, ideal food for brain and nerve cells. What looks like a high fiber, low fat diet turns into a high fat diet when the gut biome is properly nourished and contributes like it was designed to.
Now, let’s make a pivot and see if we can find anyone on this planet who eats a high fiber, high fat diet. We end up with a unique society in remote New Guinea called the Kitavans. A Swedish Researcher, Lindeberg, did a studyon the Kitavans who eat virtually no western food, 70% carb, and 20% fat and have absolutely no obesity, no heart disease, no diabetes and live into their 90s, while smoking. Imagine that!
How do they do that? They eat a ton of resistant starches in the form of taro, coconut, fruit and fish. We find much the same from Tokolau, another remote Polynesian Island with no western food: just mostly coconuts and fish.

The key is that idea of resistant starches. These are “carbs” that don’t act like most carbs. They don’t get digested in the small bowel. In the process of cooking their molecular shape is changed.  They are passed on through to the lower gut where they are ideal foods for your gut bacteria. Your colonic biome goes nuts with happiness and digests them down into short chain fatty acids, turning what looks like carbs into fat. This is the same hat trickthe gorilla does in their gut. Not only that, with all that food, the bacteria make a thick coat of mucus in your gut and you make a much more effective barrier to absorbing those dangerous lectins and LPSs fats that turn on inflammation – so you make a better natural barrier. Resistant starches reverse the damage of red meat. Now, many resistant starch foods are high lectin foods: boiled and cooled potatoes, rice – cooked and cooled, beans and oats. Gundry acknowledges this and advises you eat green bananas. Not ripe ones where the carbs are sweet and absorbed, but green where they are still resistant.

Turn on the lens of resistant starches and suddenly long lived societies around the world come into focus. They all have the same features in common. Their diets show high fiber diets of resistant starches, which their colonic biome turns into short chain fatty acids. Their brains get high fat intake. On Okinawa, the fiber is in the form of yams. Sardinians and Cretans eat high fat in the form of olive oil. Seventh Day Adventists are vegetarian, but eat about 60% fat from olives and peanuts. The Mediterranean diet goes straight for the olive oil, making an approximate high fat diet. We know your brain does better eating fat. It has to be the right fat. And having your colon make it for you appears to be the right concept. Thank you, gorillas.

WWW.What will work for me. Gundry is turning our dietary concepts on its head. But data is data. The Kitavans make for a unique example. Ditto from Tokolau Island(70% of diet from coconut). There is rice being developed on Okinawa that is particularly resistant. I’m curious if I can find it. I’m not taking up smoking. But will I eat a bit of rice now? Yes, if it has been cooked and then cooled down. Raw banana, well, I’ll try one.


Pop Quiz

  1. Gorillas eat a high fat diet? T or F                                                    Answer: False, they eat a resistant starch diet that is turned into high fat in their gut
  2. We can find examples of high fat diets all around the world. Name some.
    Answer: Sardinians, Tokolau, Crete, Loma Linda Adventists.
  3. Resistant Starches do what?                                                            Answer: Get through your small bowel undigested and give ideal food to your colonic biome where they make small fatty acids, ideal brain food.
  4. Folks eating high carb diets are in trouble for diabetes? T or F        Answer: Stupid question because there is no nuance. Eat a pizza and the high glycemic wheat crust and fatty cheese and meat will instantly turn on weight gain. Eat a high carb diet of taro root and raw bananas, and you get no weight gain.
  5. If you smoke, you can get away with it? T or F                                     Answer: True, if you move to Kitava and eat raw bananas and taro root. Otherwise you just die sooner.